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Ionic Liquids

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Ionic liquids are largely made of ions and short-lived ion pairs. These substances are variously called liquid electrolytes, ionic melts, ionic fluids, fused salts, liquid salts, or ionic glasses.

Ionic liquids are often moderate to poor conductors of electricity, non-ionizing (e.g. non-polar), highly viscous and frequently exhibit low vapor pressure. Their other properties are diverse: many have low combustibility, excellent thermal stability, wide liquid regions, and favorable solvating properties for a range of polar and non-polar compounds.

Ionic liquids have many applications, such as powerful solvents and electrically conducting fluids (electrolytes), organic chemistry, electrochemistry, catalysis, physical chemistry, and engineering.

Imidazolium ionic liquids is currently the most widely used ionic liquid. Cations are: 1-alkylimidazolium, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-alkyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium and the like. wherein alkyl: methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, cetyldecyl, hexadecyl, octodecyl and the like;Anions include: chloride, bromide, iodide, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, acetate, bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide, nitrate, perchlorate, hydrogen sulfate, dihydrogen phosphate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, trifluoroacetate, p-toluene sulfonate and the like.

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